The Basque Country & Santander/ Baskimaa ja Santander

The Basque Country is not a well-known tourist destination, unfortunately. The Basque Country, Euskal Herria in Basque, is an autonomous region in Spain, and consists of seven regions. Four of them are located in the South region in Spain and three regions in the Northeast region in France. The Basque Country has a total area of 20,664 km² and has a population about three million. The capital city of the Basque Country is Vitoria-Gasteiz. It is believed that the Basque is the oldest nation in the world.

Baskimaa ei ole kahjuks väga tuntud turismisihtkoht. Baskimaa, baski keeles Euskal Herria, on autonoomne piirkond Hispaanias. Baskimaa koosneb seitsmest piirkonnast. Neli piirkonda neist asub lõunas Hispaania territooriumil ja kolm piirkonda kirdes Prantsusmaa territooriumil. Baskimaa pindala on kokku 20 664 km² ning elanikke umbes kolm miljonit. Baskimaa pealinn on Vitoria-Gasteiz. Arvatakse, et baskid on maailma kõige vanem rahvus.

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traditional hat / traditsiooniline barett

For a long time the Spanish central government didn’t want to give the Basque country the municipality or the official status for the Basque language. All this provoke a creation of the Basque terrorism group Euskade ta Askatasuna. The intention of the Basque terrorism group was to create an independent socialist Basque country of all seven Basque provinces and release its members from prisons. More than 800 people were killed in ETA bomb attacks. In 2018 ETA apologized for the pain and damage they have caused and the group disbanded.

Hispaania keskvalitsus ei soovinud kaua aega anda Baskimaale omavalitsust ega baski keele ametlikku staatust. See kõik ajendas baskide terrorirühmituse Euskade ta Askatasuna loomisele. Terrorirühmituse eesmärk oli iseseisva sotsialistliku baski riigi loomine seitsmest baski provintsist ning oma liikmete vanglatest vabastamine. ETA pommirünnakutes on hukkunud üle 800 inimese. 2018. aastal vabandas ETA valu ja kahju eest, mida nad põhjustanud on ning läksid täielikult laiali.

1167209_493254580768431_816538225_oThe official languages of the region are Basque and Spanish. Less than one third of the population speaks Basque. It is thought that the Basque language is a remnant of an old language group what was diffused in Western Europe. Basque is not similar to any of its neighbor languages. The language has been tied in with Caucasian and Berber languages. According to some sources the Basque language has no other relative languages, but other sources declare that Estonian may be a relative language to it.

Piirkonna ametlikud keeled on baski ja hispaania keeled. Alla kolmandiku elanikkonnast räägib baski keelt. Baski keelt peetakse jäänukiks kunagi Lääne-Euroopas levinud keelkonnast. Baski keel ei sarnane ühegi oma naaberkeelega. Keelt on seostatud nii kaukaasia keeltega kui ka berberi keeltega. Ühtede allikate väitel ei ole baski keelel ühtegi keelesugulast maailmas. Olen lugenud artiklit, kus üheks keelesugulaseks peeti eesti keelt.

DSCN7206DSCN7202IMG-20130905-WA0000DSCN5445There is a very beautiful nature in the Basque Country big cliffs vary large sandy beaches, with many unspoiled fishing villages.

Baskimaal on väga ilus loodus, kaljud vahelduvad avarate liivarandadega, mille juures on mitmeid puutumata kalurikülasid.

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Sopelana beach / Sopelana rand
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Sopelana beach / Sopelana rand
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Neguri beach / Neguri rand

San Juan de Gaztelugatxe what is the real Dragonstone from the TV series Game of Thrones.

San Juan de Gaztelugatxe kus asub teleserjaali “Troonide mäng” Dragonstone.

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The largest city in the Basque Country is Bilbao. There are over 353 000 people living in Bilbao, about one million inhabitants with its suburbs. Bilbao is an industrial center of the Basque country. Bilbao is not considered as a beautiful city, but it is prosperous. Bilbao is one of the most expensive cities in Spain. The city is located in the ashore of the river Nervion. There was no particular sightseeing until American architect Frank Gehry designed the Guggenheim Museum in 1997. The Guggenheim Museum is a museum of modern and contemporary art. All the most important 20th century art streams are represented in its permanent collections. The interchangeable exposition consists of themed exhibitions. The only permanently exhibited art work is the huge installation “The matter of time” by sculptor Richard Serra. On the construction of the museum building has been used titanium, which is very rare. Titanium is usually used in aircraft parts. The total amount of titanium used was 60 tons, although the titanium layer is only three millimeters thick. In front of Guggenheim museum there is a 13 meter tall terrier puppy covered with flowers. The flower puppy is created by American artist Jeff Koons. The flower cover is being moistened inside. Behind the museum building is as tall spider made by metal. The party nights with DJs are also organized at the Guggenheim Museum. The museum is open all year round every Tuesday to Sunday from 10.00-20.00. The museum is opened only few Mondays in a year. More details can be found on the museum’s website here. The museum’s ticket costs 16€ for adults, and 9€ for students and retired people.

Baskimaa suurim linn on Bilbao. Bilbaos elab 353 000 inimest, teda ümbritsevate eeslinnadega on elanike arv umbes üks miljon. Bilbao on tööstuskeskus, linna ei peeta ilusaks, kuid ta on jõukas. Bilbao on üks Hispaania kallimaid linnu. Bilbao asub jõe Rio Nervioni kaldal. Jõgi on 16 km pikk ning suue asub Bilbao eeslinnas. Linnas ei olnud eriti huviväärsusi, kuni Ameerika arhitekt Frank Gehry lõi 1997. aastal Guggenheimi muuseumi. Guggenheimi muuseum on moodsa ja kaasaegse kunsti muuseum. Muuseumi püsikollektsioonis on esindatud kõik 20.sajandi kunsti olulisemad voolud. Vahetuv ekspositsioon koosneb teemanäitustest. Ainus püsivalt eksponeeritud töö on skulptor Richard Serra hiiglaslik installatsioon “The matter of time” ehk “Aja küsimus”. Muuseumi hoone ehituses on kasutatud titaani, mida tavaliselt kasutatakse lennukiosades. Kokku kulus titaani 60 tonni ehkki titaani kiht on vaid kolme millimeetri paksune. Guggenheimi ees on Ameerika kunstniku Jeff Koonsi loodud 13 meetri kõrgune lillevaibaga kaetud terjeri kutsikas, mida niisutatakse seestpoolt. Muuseumi taga on kutsikaga sama kõrge metallist ämblikukuju. Guggenheimi muuseumis korraldatakse ka DJ-ga peoõhtuid. Muuseum on avatud aastaringselt iga teisipäev kuni pühapäev kella 10 hommikul kuni kaheksani õhtul. Esmaspäeviti on avatud mõnedel kordadel aastal. Täpsemalt saab uurida muuseumi kodulehel siit. Muuseumi pilet maksab 16€ täiskasvanutele, õpilastele ja pensionäridele 9€.

DSC_04051393798_10152384018874852_1432284690_nDSCN5426Bilbao is very modern city with many glorious bridges. You should definitely check Zubizuri footbridge, Pedro Arrupe footbridge and La Salve Bridge which is right next to the Guggenheim Museum, with official name “Prince and Princess of Spain Bridge”.

Bilbao on väga kaasaegne, seal leiab mitmeid uhkeid sildu. Kindlasti tuleks vaadata Zubizuri ja Pedro Arrupe jalakäijatesilda ning La Salve sild, mis asub kohe Guggenheimi muuseumi kõrval. La Salve silla ametlik nimi on Hispaania printsi ja printsessi sild.

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Another well-known attraction in Bilbao is Bilbao Fine Arts Museum, Museo de Bellas Artes. Bilbao Fine Arts Museum is one of the richest Spanish museum outside of Madrid. It is one of the top one museums in Spain. The museum is open from Wednesday to Monday 10.00-20.00. There is a free visit every day from 18.00-20.00. The ticket costs 10€ for adults and discounted ticket is 8€. See here for more details.

Teiseks tuntud vaatamisväärsuseks on Kaunite Kunstide Muuseum ehk Museo de Bellas Artes. Bilbao Kaunite Kunstide Muuseum on üks kõige rikkalikum Hispaania muuseum väljaspool Madridi. Tegu on ühe riigi tippmuuseumiga. Muuseum on avatud kolmapäevast esmaspäevani 10-20.00. Muuseumisse pääseb tasuta iga päev 18.00-20.00. Muudel aegadel maksab pilet 10€. Sooduspilet 8€. Täpsemalt näeb siit.

1483000_10201999291680600_1167363030_nThere are several universities in Bilbao. In my opinion the most beautiful main building has University of Deusto. University of Deusto is located across the river from the Guggenheim Museum. I was studying there for one semester as an ERASMUS exchange student.

Bilbaos asub mitu ülikooli. Kõige ilusam hoone on ilmselt Deusto Ülikoolil, mis asub Guggenheimi muuseumist üle  jõe. Mina õppisin ühe semestri Deusto Ülikoolis ERASMUS programmi raames. 

DSC_1119n1236968_10151858801529736_964157606_n582046_4748561690253_447483982_nBetween Bilbao suburbs Las Arenas and Portugalete port there is Puente Colgante suspension bridge crossing the river. Puente Colgante has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The iron transporter bridge is built in 1888 and has gondola to transports vehicles and passengers.

Bilbao eeslinnade Las Arenase ja Portugalete kalasadama vahel ületab jõge Puente Colgante rippsild, mis on UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirjas. 1888. aastal ehitatud rauast veosillal on rippkabiin autode ja reisijate tarbeks.

DSCN8191DSCN6060DSCN7166Bilbao old town or Casco Viejo or Las Siete Calles is the medieval neighborhood in Bilbao. The names mean Seven Streets and it comes from the oldest part of the neighborhood which included exactly seven streets and some much more narrow alleys connecting them. Bilbao’s Old Town is the most visited area in the city. In the old town you should visit Plaza Nueva which means new square. It is surrounded by arches, called cuevas, and beautiful arcaded building. Many of the oldest traditional taverns, bars, cafes and restaurants of the city can be found there.

Bilbao vana kvartal ehk Casco Viejo ehk Seitse tänavat on Bilbao keskaegne piirkond. Seitsme tänava ehk Las Siete Calles nimi tuleb piirkonna kõige vanemast osast, mis koosneb täpselt seitsmest tänavast ja mitmest tänavaid ühendavast kitsast alleest. Bilbao vanalinn on linna kõige külastatum piirkond. Bilbao vanalinnas väärivad külastust Plaza Nueva ehk uus väljak. Väljak on ümbritsetud kaarte ja ilusate arkaadidega hoonetega. Väljakult leiab mitmeid vanu traditsioonilisi taverneid, baare, kohvikuid ja restorane.

DSCN5692DSCN6833DSCN7979DSCN7874Mercado de la Ribera is the biggest covered market in Europe. The total area is 10,000 square meters. The market has been working since 1929 and since that every day more than 60 local merchants set up shop there to sell traditional fresh products such as meat, fish and groceries. In 1990, the Ribera market was recognized as the most comprehensive food market in the world by the Guinness Book of Records.

Jõeäärne turg ehk Mercado de la Ribera, mis on Euroopa suurim siseruumides asuv turg, Turu suurus on 10 000 m². Turg avati aastal 1929 ning igapäevaselt on seal olnud üle 60 kohaliku kaupmehe oma värskeid kohalikke tooteid müümas. Turul müüakse liha, kala ja teisi toidukaupu. 1990. aastal kanti turg Guinessi rekordiraamatusse, kui kõige terviklikum toiduaineturg maailmas.

1461244_10201815623489010_705003192_nThe Artxanda Funicular is a classic cable car that takes you up Mount Artxanda to a breathtaking viewpoint overlooking the city. From the lookout platform at about 250 meters, you can see the impressive and ever so industrial city, its river, and the lush green mountains that stand above. At the top of the mountain you will find a park, restaurant, hotel and a sports complex. The Artxanda Funicular functions is open on weekdays from 07.15 to 22.00. There is a cable car departure every 15 minutes, and even more frequently when it is very busy in order to prevent large queues from forming. Up to 70 people can go in each cable car. The ride itself covers over 770 meters and takes three minutes, with a maximum incline of 45°. The tickets can be purchased from the departure station and the standard return tickets costs 0.95€.

Artxanda köisraudtee on klassikaline kaabelauto, mis viib Artxanda mäeotsa, kust avanevad suurepärased vaated linnale. Kaabelauto peatuskohast umbes 250 meetri kõrgusel avanevad muljetavaldavad vaated linnale, jõele ja rohelistele mägedele. Mäe ostas on ka park, restoran, hotell ja spordikompleks. Köisraudtee on avatud iga päev 07.15-22.00. Kaabelauto sõidab iga 15 minuti tagant, kui on kiirem aeg ja rohkem rahvast, siis ka tihedamini, et vältida pikki järjekordi. Ühte autosse mahub umbes 70 inimest. Sõit on 770 meetrit pikk ja kestab kolm minutit, maksimaalne kallak on 45°. Pileteid on võimalik osta Artxanda väljumipeatusest ja edasi-tagasi pilet maksab 0,95€.

DSC_1412DSCN6133DSCN6147DSCN6153On the west of Bilbao you will find a funicular that takes you to La Reineta village. La Reineta funicular railway runs from La Escontrilla Station in Trapagaran to the old mining area of La Arboleda, covering 1198 meters in 15 minutes. Uphill, the views are amazing: Abra Bay, mountain slopes and the traces of mining activity. The funicular was built in 1926. It carried the mineworkers and the iron ore from the mines in La Arvoleda to the manufacturing plants.

Linnast läänes viib köisraudtee üles La Reineta külla. La Reineta köisraudee sõidab La Escontrilla peatusest Trapagaranist vanasse La Arboleda kaevandusalale. Kaabelauto läbib 1198 meetrit 15 minutiga. Mäeotsast avanevad vaated on suurepärased: Abra laht, mäenõlvad ja vana kaevandustegevuse jäljed. Köisraudtee on ehitatud 1926. aastal, mil see vedas kaevureid ja rauamaake kaevandusest tootmisettevõtetesse. 

I think the Bilbao Metro is also worth seeing there. It is said that Bilbao Metro is one of the cleanest metros in the world.

Vaatamist tasub ka Bilbao metroo. Bilbao metroo kohta on öeldud, et tegemist on ühe maailma kõige puhtama metrooga.

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In one of the Bilbao’s suburbs, Gatika there is a Butron castle, which looks exactly like a fairy-tale castle. It dates originally from the Middle Ages. The castle has a fairy-tale look about it inspired by Bavarian castle models. The building is surrounded by a park which includes palms and exotic plants.

Bilbao äärelinnas, Gatikas, asub Butroni loss, mis näeb välja kui tõeline muinasjutuloss. Butroni loss on pärit keskajast. Lossi muinasjutuline välimus on inspireeritud Baierimaa lossidest. Loss on ümbritsetud pargiga, kus leiab nii palmipuid kui ka eksootilisi taimi.

DSCN6945DSCN6951DSCN6957DSCN6959DSCN6961DSCN6989Another well-known Basque city is San Sebastian, Donostia in local language. San Sebastian is located by the Bay of Biscay, 18 kilometers from the French border. San Sebastian is known for its International Film Festival. The International Film Festival takes place in September and has been going on already from the 1953. It has established itself as one of the most important cinema festivals in the world. In the current competitive context of international festivals, San Sebastian, which has one of the lowest budgets, has established itself as the most important in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries

Teine tuntud Baskimaa linn on San Sebastian, kohalikus keeles Donostia. San Sebastian asub Biskaia lahe ääres, 18 kilomeetri kaugusel Prantsusmaa piirist. San Sebastian on tuntud oma rahvusvahelise filmifestivali poolest. Rahvusvaheline filmifestival toimub septembris ning sai alguse juba 1953. aastal. San Sebastiani filmifestival on tõusnud üheks maailma kõige tähtsamaks kinofestivaliks. Rahvusvaheliste festivalide konkurentsis on San Sebastiani festivalil üks madalamaid eelarveid, ent see on üks kõige tähtsamaid Hispaanias ja hispaania keelt kõnelevates riikides.

1375926_10201564493370914_1094681866_n.jpgAround San Sebastian there is Bahia de la Concha or Sea Shell Bay. San Sebastian is a former fishing and commercial port. During the War of Independence in 1813 the city was almost burned down, that’s why there are no historical monuments in San Sebastian. There are three beaches in the city, the most important is Playa de la Concha which is a popular family resort. Monte Igeldo is located at the end of La Concha Bay. The cable car was built already in 1912, which makes it the oldest funicular in the Basque Country. Igeldo Funicular have wooden carriages what takes you up to the hill to see one of the most iconic panoramic views of the city, the typical postcard image of San Sebastian The funicular station is one of the most beautiful building in the city, Up on the hill is Monte Igeldo Amusement Park with old-fashioned attractions, such as the wooden roller coaster and the trampolines.

San Sebastiani ümber on Bahia de la Concha ehk merekarbilaht, mis on liivarandadega piiratud poolkaar. San Sebastian on endine kala- ja kaubasadam. 1813. aasta vabadussõja ajal põletati linn peaaegu maatasa ja sellepärast pole seal ka eriti ajaloolisi mälestisi. Linnas asub kolm randa, millest tähtsaim on Playa de la concha ehk merekarbirand, mis on populaarne perekuurort. Igeldo mägi asub La Concha lahe lõpus. Köisraudtee ehitati 1912 aastal, mis teeb temast kõige vanema köisraudtee Baskimaal. Igeldo köisraudteel on puust  vagunid, mis viivad sind mäetippu San Sebastiani panoraami vaatama, mis on ka tüüpiline linna postkaardi pilt. Köisraudtee peatuse hoone on üks kõige ilusamaid ehitisi linnas. Mäe tipus on Monte Igeldo lõbustuspark koos vanapäraste atraktsioonidega, nagu näiteks puust ameerika mäed.

1381214_10201564506651246_1511499321_nFunicularFunicular (7)Playa de la Concha (2)DSC_1152DSC_1201DSC_12051376580_10201564500091082_1328017221_n1382102_4892748414831_305706500_n1385461_10201564516691497_199943502_nCity (2)City viewDSC_1115DSC_1118DSCN6261DSCN6273DSCN6282DSCN6306DSCN6349DSCN6356Playa de la ConchaThe third most important city in the Basque Country is the capital city Vitoria-Gasteiz. Vitoria-Gasteiz is located by the river Zadorra. The old town of the city is well preserved and there are Casa del Cordon, gothic style Saint Mary’s Cathedral, the Archaeological Museum and the Torre de Doña Otxanda, which is a home for the Natural History Museum. Saint Mary’s Cathedral dates back to the 14th century.

Kolmas tähtsam linn Baskimaal on pealinn Vitoria-Gasteiz. Vitoria-Gasteiz asub Zadorra jõe ääres. Linna vanalinn on hästi säilinud ning seal asuvad Casa del Cordon, gooti stiilis Püha Maria katedraal, arheoloogiamuuseum ja Torre de Doña Otxanda, kus asub loodusteaduste muuseum. Püha Maria katedraal on pärit 14. sajandist. 541886_4928500668615_932821297_nDSCN6541DSCN6544DSCN6560DSCN6585DSCN6653DSCN6669DSCN6676DSCN6689DSCN6698DSCN6734Tapas is the popular and traditional food in Spain. In Basque Country tapas are called pintxos. Pintxos is usually a small snack consisting of bread loaf and its coating. The Basque country they are really really delicious. The Basque Country is considered to be a Spanish food king! There are many of Europe’s best restaurants in the Basque region and the area is known by their chefs and their creative mind. The Basque Country has their own wine and cider. The Basque Country region Riojas wines are probably known for everyone. The most popular wine in the Basque County is txakoli, which is a slightly sparkling, very dry white wine.

Kui mujal Hispaanias on populaarsed tapased, siis Baskimaal kutsutakse neid pintxo‘deks. Pintxod on tavaliselt väikesed leivaviilust ja selle kattest koosnevad suupisted. Baskimaal on need tõeliselt maitsvad. Baskimaad peetakse Hispaania toidukuningaks. Baski piirkonnas asuvad mitmed Euroopa parimad restoranid ning piirkond on tuntud kokkade särava loomingulisuse poolest. Baskimaal toodetakse oma veini ja siidrit. Baskimaa Riojase veine teavad ilmselt kõik. Kõige populaarsem vein Baskimaal on txakoli, mis on kergelt gaseeritud väga kuiv valge vein.

DSC_1161The main airport in the Basque Country is Bilbao Airport. There are smaller airports in Vitoria-Gasteiz and San Sebastian. Bilbao Airport is considered to be one of the most dangerous airports in the world. Bilbao is located in the valley in middle of the mountains and there are occasionally very windy. It is difficult to land a plane at Bilbao airport for the pilots. The pilots has to deal from time to time with very strong winds only after they’ve successfully cleared the Basque region’s numerous snow-capped peaks. You can see a video here of one plane trying to land in Bilbao. In 1985 a flight from Madrid crashed into Mount Oiz killing all 148 people on board. When I first visited Bilbao I had no idea that this airport is famous for this. The closest cheapest airport to Basque Country is in Santander, the capital city of Cantabria. Several Ryanair and Iberia flights land there. From Santander Airport there is a direct bus to Bilbao Bus Station. The Alsa bus takes you from Santander Airport to Bilbao bus station only with 1 hours and 20 minutes. There are five trips daily and one way ticket costs 6,78€.

Baskimaa põhilennujaam asub Bilbaos. Väiksemad lennujaamad on nii Vitoria-Gasteizis kui ka San Sebastianis. Bilbao lennujaama peetakse üheks maailma kõige ohtlikumaks lennujaamaks. Linn asub mägede keskel orus ning seal on aeg-ajalt väga tugevad tuuled. Pilootidele on keerukas maanduda Bilbao lennujaamas. Kohe kui nad on suutnud edukalt läbida Baskimaa mitmed lumised mäetipud, võib neid lennujaama kohal tabade väga tugev vastutuul. Videot, mida tuul lennukiga korraldab näeb siit. Videos on näha, et lennuk ei saagi esimese hooga kohe maanduda vaid peab õhku tõusma uuesti. 1985. aastal kukkus Madridist tuleb lend Oizi mäele Baskimaal, tappes kõik pardal olnud 148 inimest. Kui mina Bilbaos esimest korda käisin, siis mul polnud õrna aimugi, et see lennujaam sellise kuulsusega on. Kõige lähim soodsam lennujaam Baskimaale asub Santanderis, mis on Kantaabria autonoomse piirkonna keskus. Santanderi lennujaama maandub ka mitmeid Ryanairi lende.  Santanderi lennujaamast sõidab buss otse Bilbao bussijaama umbes 1 tunni ja 20 minutiga. Alsa bussifirmal on päevas viis väljumist ja ühe suuna pilet maksab 6,78€. 

Santander is the capital city of the Cantabria region. The city has a big port and it is a well-known summer resort. There are over 183,000 people living in Santander. In addition to the beaches, city has many attractions to offer. The most famous is probably the Magdalena Palace on the Magdalena Peninsula. Magdalena Palace is a former royal palace and was built in the 20th century and it is surrounded by a beautiful park. The palace has very beautiful interior. The ticket to visit the Palace costs 3€. I haven’t been inside of the Palace myself but the photos of it are already gorgeous. The TV series Grand Hotel is also filmed there.

Santander on Kantaabria piirkonna pealinn. Linnas asub suur sadam ning linn on tuntud kuurort. Santanderi linnas elab üle 183 tuhande inimese. Lisaks rannale on linnas mitmeid vaatamisväärsusi. Neist kõige kuulsam on ilmselt Magdalena palee Magdalena poolsaarel. Magdalena palee on ehitatud 20. sajandil ning seda ümbritseb kaunis park. Palee on seest väga väga ilus ning pilet maksab 3€. Ma pole ise sees käinud, kuid pildid on väga kaunid. Palees toimusid ka sarja Grand Hotel võtted. 

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source /allikas : palaciomagdalena.com
source /allikas : palaciomagdalena.com

There are several regular festivals and events in Basque country also. The most relevant is the Big week of Bilbao or Aste Nagusia which is celebrated annually since 1978 and lasting nine days. The festivities begin on the first Saturday before 22 August and during those nine days the city hall organizes a series of cultural events of diverse kind, including concerts, stage plays, Basque rural sports and bullfighting.

Baskimaal toimub mitmeid regulaarseid festivale ja üritusi. Kõige olulisem on Bilbao suur nägal ehk Aste Nagusia, mida tähistatakse igal aastal alates 1978. aastast ning pidustused kestavad üheksa päeva. Üritused algavad esimesel laupäeval enne 22.augustit ja nende üheksa päeva jooksul korraldab linna raekoda mitmeid erinevaid kultuurisündmusi, sealhulgas kontserte, lavaüritusi, baskimaalaste spordi- ja härjavõitlusi. 

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